The first principle, multiple means of engagement, advocates the presentation of a variety of ways for students to become involved in the learning. Hockings, C. (2010) Inclusive learning and teaching in higher education: a synthesis of research, York: Higher Education Academy. •1990’s – ‘Inclusion’ replaced the term ‘integration’ and included an emphasis on improving the quality of education for pupils with special needs in mainstream schools •Since 2000 – ‘Inclusion’ now refers to removing barriers to high quality education for all children at risk of marginalisation : - These principles, however, are best viewed through a critical lens that highlights cautions for teachers engaged in inclusive teaching. Inclusion has now been accepted by countries worldwide in line with the Universal declaration of the Rights of Child. At the heart of this model is a process involving promoting personal learning traits, communicating effectively, and providing a variety of options for the completion of goal-directed tasks. A useful way of understanding inclusion is to consider the polar opposite, exclusion. Auditory learners generally remember what their teacher says and readily participate in class. Critical discourse analysts are “interested in the ways in which texts of different kinds reproduce power and inequalities in society” (Perakyla, 2005, p. 871). Second, they advocate for providing options for language and mathematical expressions and symbols. There are a multiplicity of DI techniques, including but not limited to allowing extra time on tests and assignments, permitting different ways of taking tests, extension activities, adapting assignments for individual students, cooperative and collaborative learning in pairs or groups, project-based learning (individually or in pairs or groups), and a focus on Gardner’s (1983) Multiple Intelligence Theory. Inclusive Education Short video. They are often social butterflies. This will need to change if the version of UDL recommended by Rose and colleagues is to have longevity in the K–12 education system. Schools are replete with practices that reinforce these views, one of the most common being the widely accepted but largely smoke-and-mirrors practice of psychological testing of students to determine eligibility for special needs funding and service. Inclusive education is on the global agenda to attract the involvement and collaboration of all stakeholders. Given that the history of inclusive pedagogical approaches has been marked by the influence of special education, the application of a critical lens when examining inclusive pedagogies is important. Figure 1: The CAST model of UDL (Rose et al., 2014). Complex though it might seem at times, what remains a constant is a respect for the learning of all and a desire and a willingness to better cater to the needs of all children via the ways in which they learn and we teach them. However, new approaches continue to be developed that are also worthy of attention, such as Florian and Spratt’s (2013) Inclusive Pedagogical Approach in Action (IPAA) framework. This might mean supplying further background knowledge to students, or helping them to recall prior learning. teachers' perception of adapting inclusive education policies and procedures in the Bahamas and its implication for adult education. There are, however, some noteworthy larger-scale studies that speak to the efficacy of DI. Compared to schools that did not engage in DI practices they found that those schools that did were positively and significantly associated with differences in student achievement in both mathematics and reading. They must also accept that difference is part of being human and believe that under the right conditions all children can progress. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, The 9 Best Podcasts for Learning French in 2021, Activities and Ideas for Students with an Auditory Learning Style, The Best Study Techniques for Your Learning Style, Adapt Your Studying Techniques to Your Learning Style, Understanding Visual, Auditory, and Kinesthetic Learning Styles, Varying Assignments to Enhance Student Learning Styles, Visual Learning Style: Traits and Study Strategies, The Kinesthetic Learning Style: Traits and Study Strategies, The Auditory Learning Style - A Resource List, The 8 Best Podcasts for Learning Spanish in 2021, Make the Most of Your Tactile Learning Style, Study Strategies for Every Learning Style, How to Make a Small Space Productive for Studying, How to Use Sticky Notes to Remember What You Read, Why Taking Notes in Class Is So Important, How to Avoid Distraction and Stay Focused, How to Study for Objective Test Questions, M.Ed., Education Administration, University of Georgia, B.A., History, Armstrong State University, Knack for understanding changes in tone of voice, Skilled at oral reports and class presentations, Able to work through complex problems by talking out loud. Auditory learners. Without effective pedagogy we have no operative method of education and, without purposeful and effective inclusive pedagogy, we have no basis for meaningful inclusion. One of the major contributing pieces of research to the IPAA was by Florian and Black-Hawkins (2011). Meyer and colleagues (2016) note that teachers should provide a variety of options for comprehension. By the time he was accepted to BAA, he was still reading at a fifth-grade level. Record your lectures so that auditory learners can listen to them more than once. In a differentiated classroom, teachers recognize that all students are different and require varied teaching methods to be successful in school” (p. 6). The dilemmas faced are viewed as dilemmas for teaching rather than as being an inherent problem of the student’s. Consider one example, Individual Education Plans (IEPs), initially developed for use in segregated special education classrooms. Rose and colleagues’ (2014) second principle of UDL relates to the provision of multiple means of representation. What assumptions and beliefs form the basis of the pedagogical approach? The facilitation of multiple means of engagement involves discerning student traits and catering instruction to suit the wide variety of interests, abilities, learning styles, etc., that are present in a classroom. In recognition of this, pedagogies aimed at addressing the needs of all learners that minimize or eliminate the singling out of individuals for special teaching have been developed (see Forlin, Chambers, Loreman, Deppeler, & Sharma, 2013). Aural (auditory-musical): You prefer using sound and music. A further criticism of VAK is that Willingham (2012) claims that most memories are stored in terms of meaning rather than in a visual, auditory or kinaesthetic way. The underlying premise of the IPAA differs from that on which approaches such as DI are based. Inclusive education is a contested concept, with the underlying practices and meanings varying from region to region. Individual differences are acknowledged, but such differences can and should be catered for in the course of everyday teaching and learning. Demonstrate a repetitive model of desired verbal response to … From kindergarten to calculus class, auditory learners will be some of the most engaged and responsive members of any classroom. This can help ensure that approaches that perpetuate segregation do not find their way into settings that are trying to be inclusive. This responds to the criticism of Pappano (2011) that DI singles out and stigmatizes some students who notice that they are doing different work from other students, and Florian (2015) who notes that in differentiating we identify those on the margins first—an activity that inevitably leads to exclusion. Multiple means of reaching students must be employed for all students. Details will be discussed in subsequent sections. The process of transferring special education pedagogical practices to inclusive contexts, if we engage in this process at all, must be done thoughtfully and always with the awareness that such practices were nurtured in segregated environments and may themselves serve to perpetuate segregation. They are good listeners and often very social, which means they can sometimes get distracted from the lesson by everything else going on in the classroom. No-one. What is evident is that the carefully considered use of technology in the classroom is helpful and is an essential element of inclusive teaching. Figure 2: Katz’s (2012) 3-block model of UDL. To quote Bouillet (Bouillet, 2009), inclusive education can be thought of as a philoso- Student retention and success in higher education: a Higher Education Academy enhancement workstream on inclusive teaching. Initially schools were largely for those who could either afford to attend, or who were particularly well suited to them, or both. Here are some of the strengths that will help them achieve success in the classroom: Those with an auditory learning style like to speak and hear others speak in order to learn, but they may have trouble reading silently or staying engaged in a completely quiet classroom. Pappano (2011) argues that there is a gap between theory and practice, with some students expressing discontent when they noticed that their assignment was different to that of other children even as the approach was implemented by an experienced teacher in the area. The purpose of this article is to explore inclusive pedagogical approaches that may be useful and that have been shown to be adaptable regardless of context. It involves assisting learners to understand the main ideas through highlighting salient aspects of a communication, and guiding the processing of communication to ensure that what is intended is being properly understood. This is not to say that many well-intentioned people did not create and work in special education systems (and still do today), but rather that the premise of special education is that of segregation, whether it be based on the idea of providing a more appropriate education, or protecting marginalized groups from the realities of mainstream schools. Outlining beliefs and assumptions upon which thinking and acting rest. From the perspective of teachers, Katz (2015) found that a group of 58 Canadian teachers who had adopted the Three-Block Model of UDL felt that this model had improved their practice and self-efficacy perceptions related to inclusive education, as well as reducing their workload and increasing their job satisfaction. In Turkey, Bal’s (2016) study involving 57 students found that improved grade 6 student achievement in algebra was correlated with the use of techniques associated with DI, concluding that “applying [a] differentiated teaching approach within class increase[s] students’ mathematical thinking and mathematical achievement positively” (p. 199). As is the case with UDL, the IPAA seeks to provide rich learning experiences that are accessible to all learners. But progress comes slowly. With UDL the provision of “multiple means” is critical to each step of the process, from promoting student engagement, to representing and communicating, and then on to student action and expression. Each model relies on formative assessment to build a program suited to individuals in the groups in which they learn, and each model advocates for constructivist and social constructivist models of instruction that involve peer collaboration, goal-directed learning, communication, and teacher guidance. A teacher should also help students to develop capacities and strategies for monitoring their progress.

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